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Climate Action

Implementation of the CCS Directive

The Commission ensures the coherent implementation of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Directive throughout the EU by reporting on its execution, facilitating exchanges between the competent authorities, publishing guidance documents, and adopting Commission Opinions on draft storage permits.

Reports on the implementation of the CCS Directive

The CCS Directive includes reporting requirements for Member States and the Commission:

  • Every 4 years, Member States report to the Commission on the implementation of the Directive.
  • The Commission then reports to the European Parliament and the Council on its implementation across the EU.

The Commission has published 4 implementation reports:

  • 1st implementation report, February 2014 – based on Member States' reports delivered between July 2011 and April 2013, this report covers the implementation of all key provisions and state of transposition of the Directive and the Commission’s actions to improve it.
  • 2nd implementation report, February 2017 – covering the period from May 2013 to April 2016, this report focuses on the articles that had practical application in Member States.
  • 3rd implementation report, October 2019 – based on national reports covering the period from May 2016 to April 2019, this report focuses on the progress made by Member States since the 2nd implementation report.
  • 4th implementation report, October 2023 – based on national reports covering the period from May 2019 to April 2023, this report emphasises operational and regulatory developments since the previous implementation report.

As of 2023, the Commission publishes national reports on the implementation of the CCS directive received from each reporting country in the EU and EEA.

CCS Directive Expert Group

In September 2023, the Commission established an Expert Group on the Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide. The main purpose of the Expert Group is to: 

  • Assist the Commission in the implementation of existing EU legislation, programmes and policies;
  • Assist the Commission in the preparation of legislative proposals and policy initiatives;
  • Coordinate and exchange views with Member States.

For more information, please consult the constitutive documents of the Expert Group here:

Meetings of the Expert Group on the Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide:

Information Exchange Group

Guidance documents

Four guidance documents were published in 2011 to

  • provide an overall methodological approach for implementing the key provisions of the CCS Directive and
  • help ensure environmentally safe geological storage of CO2 across the EU.

The first guidance document outlines a CO2 storage life cycle risk management framework.

The other three address in more detail issues such as the characterisation of the storage complex, CO2 stream composition, monitoring and corrective measures, the criteria for transfer of responsibility to the Member State, and financial security.
The documents are mainly addressed to the competent authorities and relevant stakeholders.
They have been discussed with experts from Member States and key stakeholders, including industry, research community and NGOs.

Updating of the guidance documents

The Commission services have contracted DNV Netherlands B.V. for gathering views and inputs for a technical update of the four Guidance Documents to reflect the global state of the art of CCS and removing ambiguities identified during the implementation of the first CCS deployments in the European Economic Area (EEA). Please contact the team under:

Opinions on draft storage permits

The CCS Directive requires the Member States to make CO2 storage permit applications available to the Commission within one month of receiving them. Member States have to provide the Commission with draft storage permits and any other related material that the competent authority has taken into consideration to decide on the award of a permit.

The Commission may provide a non-binding Opinion on the draft storage permit within four months of its receipt.

Opinions provided:


For more information on the CCS Directive and its implementation, please contact CLIMA-CCS-DIRECTIVEatec [dot] europa [dot] eu (CLIMA-CCS-DIRECTIVE[at]ec[dot]europa[dot]eu).


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